What is DTV

Why in BiH

When

How

What is required

FAQ

Glossary

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Active Picture
Active portion of the picture displayed on the TV screen (does not contain black bands).
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
A committee established in 1982 in United States of America by the FCC to define new standards(ATSC standards) for advanced television.
Advanced television, ATV
Advanced television established on the FCC foundations.
A/D or ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion)
The conversion of analogue signal into digital signal.
ADC ( analog-digital converter)
A device that converts the analogue into digital signal.
Allocation
Allocation – a term used in the planning of digital network broadcasting, an area to which a certain channel has been allocated.
Allotment
Allotment – A term used in the planning of digital network broadcasting.
Amplifier
A device that increases the scope of the signal.
Analog Signal
A signal that varies continually in amplitude or frequency, transmitted in the form of continued waves.
Analogue television
analogueAnalogue television functions within a frequency range of VHF 174–230 MHz and UHF 470–860 MHz, image and sound are transmitted in analogue form in the same frequency range, whereas each station needs a separate frequency field – channel. In order to ensure the coverage of a wider area, several different frequency channels are needed; the efficiency of using a frequency spectrum is low, the level of noise and static in transmission and reception is high, and the standard formats in practice are the SD and PAL systems.
Antenna
analogue

A device that serves for the collection and transmission of signals into the receiver. The reception of digital terrestrial television requires a UHF/VHF antenna directed towards the transmitters. TV antenna that will be used to receive a digital signal is no different from the antenna that is used for the reception of an analogue signal.

API–Application Programming Interface, Aplikacijska programska površina
Programming surface (screen) provides various software approaches to the operating systems or software library.
Back channel

Back channel is a channel of a smaller frequency spectrum or capacity that serves to provide communication between the user and the central network.
The user receives the television signal, and is, at the same time, connected to the central network via another communication channel with a dial-up modem or a telephone line.
The possibility of a back channel is enabled through interactive services that allow the user to receive data and give feedback, like order services, or send comments. It serves for communication between the user and a service provider. The user receives and watches a television signal, and is, at the same time, connected with, for an example, a modem to the internet via another communications channel. That way the user can communicate with the service provider, send them comments, etc.

Bandwidth
propusnost

a) The width of the frequency belt of the signal determined by the lower and upper cutoff frequency (Hz).
b) The quantity of information that can be sent through the network.
The greater the capacity of the connection, the easier it is to establish greater speed for a larger number of users.
It is most often measured in BPS units (Bit per Second).

Bit (BInary digiT)
The smallest possible unit of storage of information.
Bit bucket
A term used for data that have been lost or destroyed.
Bit budget
The total quantity of data (bits) that can be stored on one medium. For example, 650 MB can be stored on an optical disk (CD- Compact Disc).
Broadband
The possibility of transmitting, carrying, and receiving broadband signals. It enables the transfer of voice, data, and image over one medium.
Channel coding
Channel coding is a technique of decoding data and correcting errors of radio frequency channels, used for the protection of data during the transport stage. It is used in cases of extensive data flow.
Closed Caption
Title text is an assistive technology designed to enable access to television to persons with hearing disabilities, displaying the audio portion of the television signal as text on the television screen. At the beginning of July, 1993, the Federal Communications Commission requested that all analogue television receivers with a screen of 13 inches or more sold or manufactured in USA have an in-built decoder for the displaying of titled text. From July 1st, 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) also required that the digital television receivers be capable of displaying title text.
Codec (Coder-decoder)
A device that serves for the compression and decompression of data for audio and video flows. In telecommunications, codec is a device that codes and decodes a signal. The coder converts the analogue signal into digital (A/D), while the decoder converts the digital into analogue signal (D/A).
COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
The Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a modulation method that carries signals for digital transmission, protects data packages from errors, and creates a protective relationship. It prevents multipath digital signal reception, error package, and interference.
Collision
A “collision” or interference occurs during the simultaneous transmission of two or more signals via the same channel.
CD/CSMA/ (Collision Detect / Carrier Sense Multiple Access)
A device that regulates access to an Ethernet network (a technology for local area networks (LAN). It checks the access to a channel and detects collisions. In the case of simultaneous broadcasting of signal, every transmitter waits for some time until the signal is successfully resent.
DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting)
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a standard for the digital transmission of audio signal. In the frequency range from 30MHz to 3GHz, DAB is intended for satellite, cable, and terrestrial broadcasting.
Delta Frames
Delta frame or difference frame – created by temporary compression, contains changes from the previous frame.
Digital dividend
Digital dividend is a part of the frequency spectrum that has been opened up with the complete switch-over from analogue to digital broadcasting, and that may be used for the implementation of other services.
Digital added-value
Digital added value, a new service made possible by digital television.
DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television)
Digital Terrestrial Television - (DTT) is the implementation of digital technology used in Europe for the broadcasting of digital television signals via a network of terrestrial transmitters. The basic sound and video signals are converted, modulated and coded into digital form and transmitted as such; Digital terrestrial television allows a greater number of channels, better image, and sound. An internal or external antenna is required for the reception of digital signal. The coverage of a wider area requires a network which can work as a simple frequency network SFN or a multiple-frequency network MFN.
DMA (Digital Media Adapter)
Digital Media Adapter A digital multimedia surface (screen), used to link different external audio and video equipment. It has the possibility of transferring and displaying digital content to and from other electrical devices, such as TV. The user can access and share music, pictures, etc. over the network.
(DMB) Digital Multimedia Broadcasting
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting is the upgrade of standard digital audio broadcasting system, intended to send television and radio satiations and data to mobile devices, such as mobile phones. They operate via terrestrial, satellite, and mobile transmission.
Dolby Digital

Dolby Digital or AC3 (Advanced Codec 3 or Audio Codec 3) is an audio compression technology used in cinemas and home productions, creating complementary effects. It consists of six channels, five channels for speakers of normal frequency (20 Hz – 20,000 Hz), and one channel for low-frequency effects (LFEs).  Dolby Digital is the official standard for digital TV and HDTV.

DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting)
An acronym for the broadcasting of a digital video signal. It consists of over 270 members with the task of developing a system of digital television in Europe. The DVB systems are transmitted using diverse standards, including satellite, cable, and terrestrial ones.
DVB-C (Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable)
An acronym for the Digital cable broadcasting, a standard adopted in 1994. The digital signal is transmitted through a cable distribution network.
DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld)
An acronym for digital video broadcasting – handheld. The standard has been adopted by the European Union. This standard is adjusted to mobile devices that use transmitters on Earth for the transmitting of digital signal.
DVB-S (Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite)

An acronym for digital satellite broadcasting, the oldest DVB standard, which started to be transmitted via satellite in 1995.

DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial)
An acronym for Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting. It is the most recent and complex system from the group of DVB standards. The broadcasting of digital audio and video content is conducted via a network of transmitters on Earth (over the air).
EBUB (European Broadcasting Union)
European Broadcasting Union. One of its main activities is the stipulating of recommendations for 625-line television systems.
ECC (Error Check and Correct)
A code for error detection and correction. It is added to the data package in the communication channel or data block on the disk. The code detects small errors, and, if they are not too long, it can correct them.
EDH (Error Detection and Handling)
Error detection and handling in case of a serial digital data transfer. It is included in digital equipment and, in case of an error, a signal is sent that activates an error indicator derived by an LED diode.
eEvropa (eEurope 2005)
The action plan for the development of an information society in Europe – eEurope 2005 has been adopted on June 2002 in Seville, with the aim of developing e-business, e-learning, and e-administration on the basis of secure broadband connection in 3.1.4.
Encryption
Serves for the protection of digital information; here, a key code is required in order to come to an original message.
Enhanced television (Extended Definition television, EDTV)
Extra digital services that have been added to SDTV or HDTV.
EPG (Electronic Program(me) Guide)
Electronic Program Guide enables a search of television content with the possibility of conducting a search by content, time, channel, category, genre, etc.
Ethernet
Ethernet (IEEE standard 802.3) is the most frequently used technology for local area networks (LAN) today. It has been created in Xerox laboratories in late 1970s. The data are sent in form of packages adjusted for sending via computer network. Fast Ethernet enables a transfer rate from 10 Mbps on the basic 10BaseT Ethernet networks to 100 Mbps on fast Ethernet networks, 1000 Mbps on Gigabit Ethernet, and 10000 Mbps on 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks.
FCC(Federal Communications Commission)
Federal Communications Commission. An independent United States government agency, directly responsible to Congress; established in 1934, it regulates inter-state and international communications by radio, television, wire (telegraph), cable, and satellite.
FEC (Forward Error Correction)
Techniques used in the digital signal transmission with the purpose of reducing the number of errors during broadcasting. The transmitter sends additional information (error correction code) that enables the detection and correction of errors within permitted limits, without requiring additional data from the transmitter. It is particularly used in situations where re-broadcasting is expensive and difficult to conduct.
Fiber optics
Thin glass optical fiber placed inside the cover, which transmits optical signals with very few losses.
Format Conversion
The switch-over process from one format of the digital signal to another digital signal format.
Frame
Frame, block. Refers to the transmission of bit data packages in certain codes and format. Often contains instructions and information concerning the addressing and detecting of errors. In the PAL system, one frame (block) has 652 lines.
(FTA) Free-to-air
Non-coded radio and television broadcasting available via adequate receivers.
Frequency
The number of cycles occurring per second of an electrical or electromagnetic wave, expressed in Hertz (Hz).
Frequency spectrum
Frequency spectrum is a range of frequencies divided into several bands.
GRAND ALLIANCE
Grand Alliance – a group from USA, established by the FCC in 1993 in order to make a specification for high definition digital television (HDTV). The proposed format for HDTV is ATSC. The alliance members are: AT&T, General Instrument Corporation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Philips Consumer Electronics, David Sarnoff Research Center, Thomson Consumer Electronics, and Zenith Electronics Corporation.
HDTV (High Definition television)
IDTVHigh definition (resolution) television was presented to the public for the first time in Tokyo in 1975. Its inventor is T. Fujio. The use of 1125, 1080 and 1035 lines is intended for interlaced scanning, while 1080 and 720 lines are for progressive scanning. It uses a 16:9 picture format in order to ensure compatibility with cinematographic production. By its definition, this system is one of high quality; horizontal and vertical resolutions are at least twice as large as the resolution of standards systems. It has been questioned whether progressive scanning with 480 lines is high quality television, considering it yields better resolution than interlaced scanning. It has been concluded that such format with progressive scanning yields better quality of image, but it does not belong under the category of high quality television.
HD ready
Proposed by the EICTA (European Information Communications and Consumer Electronics Technology Industry Associations), it qualifies equipment that receives and processes high definition television signals and defines minimal technical preconditions for the displaying of image.
ITU (International Telecommunications Union)
The International Telecommunications Union, recognized by the UN, responsible for the standardization, allotment of radio frequency spectrum, and development, including the regulation of the use of the broadcasting spectrum and the coordination of state regulations.
Interframe coding
In video compression, the coding of differences between frames. It enables a solid compression, for only a small number of pixels differ from one frame to another, so it is not necessary to transmit a complete frame. It depends completely on the frame content. The more similar the frame content, the smaller the difference.
Jitter
The jittering or oscillation in the transmission of signal or the displaying of frame.
Keyframe
A complete frame that serves as a base for the delta frames.
LAN (Local Area Network)
A type of local network that connects computers on a smaller area (floor or building)
MCPC (Multiple Channel Per Carrier)

Several channels are combined into one signal before being modulated into a carrier that is transmitted from one location to another, or several distant ones. TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) technique is used for the broadcasting of multiple channels at the same time.

MFN - Multi Frequency Network
A network of transmitters on multiple frequencies.
MHP (Multimedia Home Platform)
Standard designed on the part of the DVB project for interactive digital television. It enables the reception and execution of interactive Java-based applications on a TV set.
MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
MPEG is a group of experts (ISO/CCITT) involved in the defining of standards for the compression of moving pictures data. The first meeting of the group was held in Ottawa, Canada, in May 1988. There are currently about 350 members of this group. The main interests of the television industry are formats MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, while MPEG-4 format is used for multiple purposes. With the integration of HDTV and MPEG-2 standards, MPEG-3 has become redundant.
MPEG-1
The first MPEG video and audio standard, later used as a standard for Video CD and MP3 audio format.
MPEG-2
The second of several standards developed in 1994 by the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG). Presented as a video standard for the coding of sound and video with compression. It is used as a format of digital television signal broadcasted via terrestrial, cable, and satellite transmitters. Television stations, TV sets, DVD players, and other equipment are often designed according to this standard.
MPEG-4
MPEG-4 is a standard for coding audio and video digital data. It has been presented in 1998 by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) under the formal standard ISO / IEC 14496. It is intended for systems with low capacity and frequency range, such as mobile and video phones, but developed out of a more complex compression of algorithms and data restrictions. It is desirable that it be used in the future for DVB in order to increase the transmission capacity.
MULTIPLEKSER (MUX or MULDEX)
In telecommunications, a multiplexer is a device that integrates multiple input information signals into a single output signal. A multiplexer can combine several variable speeds of data bits into a constant broadband signal.
NTSC
(National Television Systems Committee) A board of experts in United States of America, which proposed national television norms adopted by the FCC in 1953.
NTSC (National Television Systems Committee)
TV standard used in United States of America, Canada, Mexico and Japan (NTSC M standard – 525 lines, 60 Hz). Bandwidth in NTSC system is 4.2 MHz for luminance signal, as well as 1.3 and 0.4 MHz for I and Q component of chrominant signal.
Opacity
Transparency (sheerness) of frame that allows visibility behind the frame.
Optical Disc
Optical disk is a type of media that uses optical technology for the high-quality storing of data with the possibility of keeping large quantities of data on a small space.
PAL (Phase Alternation Line)
Television standard used in the majority of European countries. PAL specifies 786 pixels per line, 625 lines per screen, 25 frames per second, with a primary power of 220 volts. It has been presented for the first time in 1961. It codes colors differently from NTSC.
Pixel
pixelPixel stands short for a picture element. Pixel is the smallest graphical element of an image, specific for bitmap images, unlike image of vector graphics. For it to be converted to digital form, an image must be stored as a sequel of bits (as it is the case with, for instance, digital cameras) for which they must be “translated” into several smaller parts, each of specific color. These parts are called pixels and their quantity in certain image determines, among other things, the quality of image, but also directly influences the size of a database and its real dimensions (the width and height of the image).
PPV (Pay-per-view)
“Pay-per- view” (often called PPV for short) is a service that allows the television viewers to watch special programs by paying an additional price.
Resolution
rezolucijaResolution is a number of pixels projected at x- and y-axis. It is stated as a product of two positive numbers (for instance, 1600x1200).
Sampling
The process of taking samples of an analogue signal in order to convert them into a structured digital signal.
SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier)
A satellite system that uses a special carrier for each channel, unlike the multiplex allocation of frequencies that unites many channels on a single carrier.
SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy is an international standard for synchronized data transmission using optical cables. SDH equivalent in North America is SONET. Transport modules (STM-N) have transmission speed of N x 155,52 Mb/s, where N can be 1,4, 16 or 64.
SECAM (Sequential couleur avec mémoire)
A TV broadcast standard used in France, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. The signals used to transmit color are transmitted sequentially, a component of color signal in each line (R-Y or B-Y). SECAM processes 625 lines, a maximum of 833 pixels per line, and 50 Hz picture frequency.
Set-top box ili Digitalni konvertor
is a device connected to an analogue television set which converts digital signal into the analogue through an air antenna. The set-top box enables the television format to receive and decode digital broadcast. It is necessary for viewers who want to receive digital signals using their existing analogue television.
SFN - Single Frequency Network
A network of transmitters operating on the same frequency. Each transmitter transmits the same information, and in doing so, the broadcasting must be synchronized. This means that the transmitters in SFN are strictly connected and cannot function independently of one another.
SR (Symbol Rate)
It stands for the speed of digital signal flow. The unit of measure is baud (Bd) or symbols/second. Each symbol may present or carry one or more data bits.
Subcarrier
A subsidiary signal that carries additional information.
Superteletekst
An improved version of analogue teletext (interactive advertising, home shopping).
Transponder
In telecommunications, a transponder is an automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits the signal on a different frequency.
Transmitter
Transmitter – a device that generates radio-waves and sends them to an antenna.
Transport stream (TS).
A system for transporting
UHF (Ultra High Frenquency)
Relates to the radio frequency spectrum between 300 MHz and 3GHz.
VHF ( Very High Frequency)
The radio frequency spectrum between 30 MHz and 300 MHz.
Voice Channel
The voice channel is used to carry audio data from the base station to the mobile phone and vice-versa.
VOD (Video on Demand)
The broadcasting of signal on demand is an interactive video service where the viewer can order a video or a movie with the possibility of pausing it, rewinding it, etc.
Widescreen
A screen that is wider than the standard 1.33 (4:3) aspect ratio. A screen that is wider than the standard screen (4:3). A widescreen has a 16:9 aspect ratio. This size ratio is used in HDTV systems.

 

List of Abbreviations:

720p
It presents an HDTV standard. The number 720 stands for the horizontal lines of displayed resolution, while the letter “p” stands for progressive scanning, that is, all lines are displayed simultaneously, thus resulting in a sharper, better quality picture. Progressive scanning is opposite to standard television that displays line by line.
1080i
A standard for HDTV where the number 1080 stands for horizontal lines, and the sign “i” stands for the interlaced screening of picture („non-progressive scan“). It refers to the wide screen format 16:9 and the 1920x1080 image resolution, or approximately 2.07 million pixels.
1080p
Similar to the 1080i standard, but it stands for a frame in progressive scanning, meaning that the frame is not interlaced as in 1080i, but all lines are displayed at the same time. That is also how a frame of 1920x1080 or approximately 2.07 pixels is created.

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© Communications Regulatory Agency BiH, 2008.